1993:
M.A. (History & Philosophy of Science), University of Guelph. Ontario. Canada.

1978:
Ph.D. (Biology), Catholic University. Nymegen. NL. Thesis:  "Region Specific Cell Differentiation During Early Insect Development."

1972:
M.Sc. (Biology), State University of Utrecht. Utrecht. N.L. Subjects: Experimental embryology, theoretical biology, biophysical chemistry, general zoology. Thesis:  "Patroonvorming en patroonregulatie tydens de embryogenese van insekten."

1969:
B.Sc.  (Biology), State University of Groningen.  Groningen.  N.L.

1966:
Diploma Christelijk Lyceum. Groningen.  N.L.